Example: PGF version 1.18

Published 2007-07-25 | Author: The TikZ and PGF manual

A new version of PGF, version 1.18, was recently released. As always with a new release, there are many new and exciting features and improvements. Below I have summarized some of the new features. For a full list of changes see the changelog.

Math library

Mark Wibrow has contributed an impressive and flexible math library. The new library allows you to use mathematical expression when specifying coordinates. Example:

\node at (2*0.5,{2*sin(10)}) {$\gamma$};
\draw (0,0) -- (pi/4r:1);

A consequence of the new library is that you now can use fractional values when specifying angular coordinates! You can also plot simple functions inline without using gnuplot.


A TikZ matrix is a new and powerful way of arranging elements of your illustration in a grid like fashion. It is similar to LaTeX’ array environment and PSTricks’ psmatrix environment. Example:

    \matrix (magic) [matrix of nodes]
        8 & 1 & 6 \\
        3 & 5 & 7 \\
        4 & 9 & 2 \\
    \draw[thick,red,->] (magic-1-1) |- (magic-2-3);

Graphic externalization commands

A common problem when distributing TeX-documents with PGF and TikZ code, is that colleagues and editors does not PGF installed. New in this version are a set of commands for creating a version of your document which does not need PGF installed to compile. Your illustrations are instead created as external files and included in your document. This can also be useful for illustrations that are very time consuming to draw.

New node shapes

Mark Wibrow has contributed two new and highly configurable node shapes:

  • regular polygon. The number of sides can be set with the option regular polygon sides.
  • star. You can set the number of points with the star points option.

See the node shapes example for more information. A few new shapes are also available in the CVS version.

Calendar library

With the \calendar command from the calendar library you can typeset all kinds of calendars. The library also includes utilities for marking special days and to do various date calculations.

Final words

I have now briefly described most the new features of PGF 1.18. You should read the manual carefully to get all the details. The final new feature I will mention is the paper folding library. Very useful when you want to fold a paper dodecahedron.

PGF and TikZ is getting better and better for each version. Judging from the activity on various mailing lists and forums, it also seems that the number of users is steadily increasing.

Source:The PGF and TikZ manual

Download as: [PDF] [TEX]  •  [Open in Overleaf]

PGF version 1.18

Do you have a question regarding this example, TikZ or LaTeX in general? Just ask in the LaTeX Forum.
Oder frag auf Deutsch auf TeXwelt.de. En français: TeXnique.fr.



% Math engine
    \coordinate (current point) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (old velocity) at (0,0);
    \coordinate (new velocity) at (rand,rand);
    \foreach \i in {0,1,...,100}
        \draw[black!\i] (current point)
        .. controls ++([scale=-1]old velocity) and
            ++(new velocity) .. ++(rand,rand)
            coordinate (current point);
        \coordinate (old velocity) at (new velocity);
        \coordinate (new velocity) at (rand,rand);

% Inline plotting
    \draw[very thin,color=black!20] (-0.1,-1.1) grid (3.9,3.9);
    \draw[->] (-0.2,0) -- (4.2,0) node[right] {$x$};
    \draw[->] (0,-1.2) -- (0,4.2) node[above] {$f(x)$};
    \draw[color=red] plot (\x,\x) node[right] {$f(x) =x$};
    \draw[color=blue] plot (\x,{sin(\x r)}) node[right] {$f(x) = \sin x$};
    \draw[color=orange] plot (\x,{0.05*exp(\x)})
        node[right] {$f(x) = \frac{1}{20} \mathrm e^x$};

% New node shapes
    \matrix[nodes={draw, thick, fill=blue!20,minimum size=1cm},
        row sep=0.3cm,column sep=0.5cm] {
    \node[regular polygon,regular polygon sides=5] {};&
    \node[regular polygon,regular polygon sides=7] {};&
    \node[regular polygon,regular polygon sides=9] {};\\
    \node[star,star points=4] {};&
    \node[star,star points=7,star point ratio=0.8] {};&
    \node[star,star points=10] {};\\

% Calendar library
    \calendar [ dates=2007-07-01 to 2007-07-last,
               week list,inner sep=2pt,month label above centered,
               month text=\%mt \%y0
    if (weekend) [red,nodes={draw=none}];

% Matrices
\begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth,->,shorten >=2pt,looseness=.5,auto]
    \matrix [matrix of math nodes,
        column sep={2cm,between origins},
        row sep={3cm,between origins},
        nodes={circle, draw, minimum size=7.5mm}]
            & |(A)| A & \\
            |(B)| B & |(E)| E & |(C)| C \\
            & |(D)| D \\
    \tikzstyle{every node}=[font=\small\itshape]
    \draw (A) to [bend left] (B) node [midway] {g};
    \draw (B) to [bend left] (A) node [midway] {f};
    \draw (D) -- (B) node [midway] {c};
    \draw (E) -- (B) node [midway] {b};
    \draw (E) -- (C) node [near end] {a};
    \draw [-,line width=8pt,draw=white]
        (D) to [bend right, looseness=1] (A);
    \draw (D) to [bend right, looseness=1] (A)
        node [near start] {b} node [near end] {e};

% Paper folding library
\begin{tikzpicture}[transform shape]
    [folding line length=6mm,
    face 1={ \node[red] {1};},
    face 2={ \node {2};},
    face 3={ \node {3};},
    face 4={ \node {4};},
    face 5={ \node {5};},
    face 6={ \node {6};},
    face 7={ \node {7};},
    face 8={ \node {8};},
    face 9={ \node {9};},
    face 10={\node {10};},
    face 11={\node {11};},
    face 12={\node {12};}];



  • #1 Wolfgang Gruber, November 4, 2008 at 1:59 p.m.

    Labels b,e,g,f are wrong positioned (within node E, instead along the connecting arrows).

  • #2 Kjell Magne Fauske, November 4, 2008 at 2:27 p.m.

    You are right. In the CVS version of PGF the code for drawing the edges is:

    \begin{scope}[every node/.style={font=\small\itshape}]
        \draw (A) to [bend left] node [midway] {g} (B);
        \draw (B) to [bend left] node [midway] {f} (A);
        \draw (D) -- node [midway] {c} (B);
        \draw (E) -- node [midway] {b} (B);
        \draw (E) -- node [near end] {a} (C);
        \draw [-,line width=8pt,draw=graphicbackground]
            (D) to [bend right, looseness=1] (A);
        \draw (D) to [bend right, looseness=1]
            node [near start] {b} node [near end] {e} (A);

    I have run into this problem before. In PGF CVS you are no longer allowed to write:

    \draw (a) to (b) node[midway] {label};

    Instead you have to write:

    \draw (a) to node[midway] {label} (b);

    Not sure why this changed. Thanks for reporting this issue. I will update the code when I have some time.

  • #3 Kjell Magne Fauske, November 4, 2008 at 2:35 p.m.

    The problem is probably related to this entry in the CVS log:

    2008-06-19 Till Tantau <...>
       * Bugfixes in scoping behaviour.
       * Changed scoping rules for to path operation: Options are now
    local. This may break existing code, but is much more consistent with
    everything else and removes other problems.
  • #4 Jason Waskiewicz, February 10, 2010 at 4:21 a.m.

    I was curious if the calendar can be altered to "American" style where the week begins on Sunday and ends on Saturday. I found the calendar very useful recently, but it confused everyone I handed it to.

  • #5 Kjell Magne Fauske, February 11, 2010 at 9:37 a.m.

    @jason. I took a look at the manual, but could not find a predefined "American" style. You probably have to define your own week list arrangement. Look for the chapter "Creating a Week List Arrangement" in the manual for hints.

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